Digitalisasi Naskah: Sebuah Bagian Konservasi yang Perlu Dilakukan

Konservasi Naskah

Konservasi Naskah

Abstrak

Berdasarkan data-data penelitian kodikologi, diketahui bahwa para ahli filologi yang menekuni kodikologi secara khusus masih sangat langka. Kebanyakan dari mereka justru berkewarganegaraan Asing, seperti Jepang, Amerika Serikat, Australia, dan sebagainya. Padahal bidang kodikologi ini sangat menarik dan menantang. Karena para peneliti harus terjun ke lapangan menemui kolektor-kolektor pribadi, melakukan pendekatan dan sekaligus melakukan inventarisasi, deskripsi serta digitalisasi. Sampai saat ini penelitian kodikologi yang dilakukan oleh para filolog Nusantara kebanyakan baru sebatas pada tataran katalogisasi yang disertai uraian deskripsi naskah. Dengan demikian, penelitian kodikologi yang dilakukan belum menyentuh aspek konservasi, apalagi yang terkait dengan pemanfaatan teknologi digitalisasi. Padahal, hasil digitalisasi ini terbukti cukup mampu bertahan lama.

Keyword: naskah, digitalisasi dan konservasi

1. Pendahuluan

Penelitian kodikologi terhadap naskah-naskah Nusantara masih belum banyak dilakukan. Pada umumnya, telaah manuskrip dilakukan dengan titik berat pada perbandingan naskah dalam hal kandungan isi. Terlebih lagi penelitian naskah yang berupaya menginventarisir keberadaan naskah yang masih dalam koleksi-koleksi pribadi sekaligus juga mengupayakan penyelamatannya dengan memanfaatkan kemajuan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi (digitalisasi dan cybermedia), dapat dipastikan masih sangat jarang dilakukan. Kalaupun dilakukan, dapat dipastikan penelitinya berasal dari luar negeri. Dengan demikian, penelitian ini perlu dilakukan dengan maksud agar warisan intelektual yang terkandung dalam naskah dapat diselamatkan dan hasilnya tidak begitu saja ”berpindah tangan” ke luar negeri.

Terlebih lagi dalam sejarah kebudayaan Nusantara, diketahui bahwa Jawa pernah dikenal sebagai salah satu pusat kegiatan sastra yang ”luar biasa”, khususnya Yogyakarta dan Surakarta, ketika menjadi pusat pemerintahan dan pusat kebudayaan Jawa. Pada tahun-tahun itulah terjadi tradisi penulisan dan penyalinan naskah dalam jumlah besar. Bahkan jauh sebelum itu pun tradisi sastra sudah ada di bumi Jawa. Hal ini terbukti dengan ditemukannya “Padepokan Merapi-Merbabu” di lereng barat daya Gunung Merbabu, Jawa Tengah (Kartika Setyawati, I. Kuntara Wiryamartana dan Willem van der Molen, 2002: 1—2).

Padepokan ini awalnya merupakan perpustakan pribadi seseorang yang hidup di abad kedelapan belas. Nama orang itu adalah Kyai Windusana. Berdasarkan keterangan cucunya, Kyai Windusana adalah penganut agama ‘Buda’ (agama pra-Islam). Cucunya sendiri beragama Islam dan ia hanya menjadi penjaga naskah warisan kakek. Koleksi naskah yang tersimpan di padepokan itu memiliki rentang waktu sepanjang tiga abad: dari awal abad keenam belas sampai akhir abad kedelapan belas. Sementara ini belum terjawab tentang proses Kyai Windusana dalam mengumpulkan naskah. Semua naskah berbahan dasar daun lontar. Naskah nipah atau kertas tidak ada.

Teks naskah Merapi-Merbabu ditulis dengan aksara Jawa-Buda. Sebuah jenis aksara yang berbeda dengan aksara Jawa dan Bali. Adapun bahasa yang digunakan dalam naskah adalah bahasa Jawa Kuna, Jawa, Sanskerta dan Arab. Adapun Isi naskah meliputi bermacam-macam jenis dan bidang, dari tembang sampai prosa, dari sastra dan sejarah sampai agama.

Di skriptorium Merapi – Merbabu inilah ditemukan bagian parwa dari buku Mahabhārata, yang berjudul Sabhāparwa yang telah dianggap hilang dalam tradisi Jawa dan Bali oleh P. J. Zoetmulder sejak tahun 1969. Dengan demikian, dapat dinyatakan bahwa penemuan skriptorium ini sangat bermanfaat karena merupakan jawaban atas missing link antara Jawa dan Bali yang selama ini belum ditemukan (I. Kuntara Wiryamartana dan W. van der Molen, 2003: 3).

Selain itu, terdapat pula skriptorium berupa pondok-pondok pesantren tradisional yang masih hidup sampai sekarang. Berkembangnya skriptorium ini sejalan dengan masuknya Islam di Jawa. Penelitian terhadap skriptorium pondok-pondok pesantren di pesisir utara Pulau Jawa yang dilakukan oleh Yumi Zagahara (2002) menunjukkan bahwa tradisi ini masih ada. Terbukti dengan ditemukannya sejumlah naskah yang beraksara arab baik dengan bahasa Arab maupun Jawa.

Uli Kozok, seorang peneliti dari Hawaii University juga banyak melakukan riset sekaligus konservasi digital terhadap naskah-naskah Batak. Bahkan, kini ia mengembangkan area penelitiannya sampai wilayah Sungai Batanghari, Riau. Di sekitar hulu sungai tersebut ia menemukan naskah Melayu tertua, yang diperkirakan ditulis pada abad ke-14. Keyakinan ini diperkuat dengan hasil tes DNA terhadap bahan kertas dari naskah yang ditemukan tersebut. (Uli Kozok, 2003)

Dari data-data tersebut sepintas dapat diketahui bahwa para peneliti asing begitu gencar melakukan action research-nya di Indonesia. Sementara itu, banyak ahli filologi Indonesia masih saja ‘menjadi penonton di negerinya sendiri’ dan masih saja bertumpu pada pola-pola penelitian filologi “tradisional” (hanya sebatas melakukan inventarisasi, deskripsi naskah dan suntingan teks).

2. Konservasi Naskah

Naskah atau manuskrip (handschrift, manusscript, manuscriptum) berarti tulisan tangan. Kata naskah juga berarti karangan, surat, dan sebagainya yang masih ditulis dengan tangan; copy, karangan dan sebagainya yang akan dicetak atau diterbitkan (Poerwadarminta, 1976: 672). Dalam keseharian, kata naskah dapat juga diartikan sebagai teks tulisan tangan atau ketikan.

Dulu, pengertian naskah adalah karangan-karangan, surat, buku, dan sebagainya yang berupa tulisan tangan, sedangkan kini: sesuai dengan perkembangan zaman dan teknologi, fungsi mesin ketik dan komputer telah menggantikan tulisan tangan. Jadi, naskah kini lebih dipahami sebagai karangan atau teks yang belum dicetak.

Meskipun demikian, kata ‘naskah’ dalam konteks ini lebih dimaksudkan sebagai karya tertulis produk masa lampau sehingga dapat disebutkan sebagai naskah lama (lih. Robson, 1978; Baried, 1985). Dalam pembicaraan di sini, kata “naskah” diikuti juga oleh atribut “lama”. Pemberian atribut ”lama” di sini untuk menandai kejelasan pembatasan konsep ”naskah”. Hal ini didasarkan pada Monumen Ordonasi STBL 238 th 1931 dan Undang-undang Cagar Budaya No. 5 th 1992, yang menyatakan bahwa naskah kuna adalah naskah atau manuskrip yang telah berusia minimal 50 tahun.

Dilihat dalam konteks Indonesia, naskah lama berarti ciptaan yang terwujud dalam bahasa-bahasa yang dipakai di Indonesia pada masa lampau – dan atau terus dipakai pada masa kini. Termasuk di sini karya-karya yang menggunakan bahasa Melayu, Jawa, Sunda, Bugis, Aceh, Minang dan sebagainya yang tercipta dalam masa lampau. Beraneka macam naskah Indonesia dapat dilihat juga dari bahan yang dipergunakan, yaitu kertas Eropa, daluwang (Kertas Jawa), lontar atau lontara, daun nipah (yang biasanya digunakan untuk naskah-naskah Sunda Kuna), kulit kayu (pustaha) untuk naskah-naskah Batak, dan kulit binatang (Mulyadi, 1994: 44—46). Dengan demikian, yang dimaksudkan dengan naskah di sini, ialah semua peninggalan tertulis nenek moyang kita pada kertas, lontar, kulit kayu, dan rotan yang telah berusia minimal 50 tahun..

Mengingat bahan naskah seperti tersebut di atas, jelaslah, bahwa naskah itu tidak dapat bertahan lama apalagi sampai beratus-ratus tahun tanpa pemeliharaan yang cermat dan perawatan yang khusus, sebagaimana dapat kita jumpai di luar negeri. Pemeliharaan naskah agar tidak cepat rusak, antara lain dilakukan dengan cara: mengatur suhu udara tempat naskah itu disimpan, sehingga tidak cepat lapuk; melapisi kertas-kertas yang sudah lapuk dengan kertas yang khusus untuk itu, sehingga kuat kembali; dan menyemprot naskah-naskah itu dalam jangka waktu tertentu dengan bahan kimia yang dapat membunuh bubuk-bubuk yang memakan kertas itu. Demikian antara lain pemeliharaan khusus terhadap naskah-naskah itu, tetapi tinta yang memecah dan kertas yang cepat menguning atau dengan kata lain kualitas tinta dan kertas yang kurang baik sukar diatasi.

Dapatlah dibayangkan, bahwa apabila naskah-naskah tidak dirawat dengan cermat akan cepat sekali hancur dan tidak bernilai lagi sebagai warisan budaya nenek moyang. Naskah bukanlah perhiasan yang bisa dibanggakan dengan mempertontonkannya saja. Naskah itu baru berharga, apabila masih dapat dibaca dan dipahami.

Sebagai peninggalan masa lampau, naskah mampu memberi informasi mengenai berbagai aspek kehidupan masyarakat masa lampau, seperti politik, ekonomi, sosial, dan budaya. Informasi awal terkait dengan hal ini dapat ditemukan dari katalog. Katalog ini biasanya memberikan informasi tentang judul naskah, tempat penyimpanan naskah, serta beraneka macam kandungan yang tersimpan dalam naskah tersebut. Sebagai contoh dapat dikemukakan di sini kandungan yang terdapat dalam naskah antara lain: ajaran agama, sejarah, hukum, adat-istiadat, filsafat, politik, sastra, astronomi, ajaran moral, mantera, doa, obat-obatan, mistik, bahasa, bangunan dan tumbuh-tumbuhan (lih. Matthes, 1883 – untuk naskah-naskah Makassar; Cabaton – untuk naskah-naskah Paris Perancis, Jawa, Batak; Howard, 1996 – untuk naskah-naskah Malaysia; Piegeaud, 1967 –untuk naskah-naskah Jawa di Negeri Belanda; Sutaarga, 1972 – untuk naskah-naskah Melayu di Indonesia (Jakarta); Ricklefs dan Voorhoeve, 1977 – untuk naskah-naskah di Inggris; Miller, 1982 – untuk naskah-naskah yang tersimpan di Australia; Girardet, 1983 – untuk naskah-naskah yang tersimpan di Yogyakarta dan Surakarta; Molen, 1984; Mulyadi, 1990).

Dengan diterbitkannya beberapa katalogus naskah seperti di atas dan yang disusun oleh Juynboll (1889), Browne (1900), Van Ronkel (1909), Voorhoeve (1973), Chambert-Loir (1980), Kartz (1989), Behrend (1990), Lindsay, Soetanto, dan Feinstein (1994), Behrend dan Titik Pudjiastuti (1997), Behrend (1998), Edi S. Ekadjati dan Undang A. Darsa (1999), Chambert-Loir dan Oman Fathurahman (1999), Kartika Setyawati, Kuntara Wiryamartana, dan van der Molen (2002), Siti Maram R. Salahuddin dan Mukhlis (2007). Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa yang dilakukan oleh para peneliti itu merupakan langkah awal dalam usaha menginventarisasi naskah. Pada tahap inilah diperoleh informasi tentang jenis naskah, tempat penyimpanan, penyalinan, serta deskripsi naskah.

Selama ini masih jarang ditemukan penelitian kodikologi khususnya tentang konservasi dan sekaligus invetarisasi naskah kuna di Indonesia. Terlebih lagi bila penelitian tersebut mampu menjangkau naskah-naskah kuna yang tersimpan dalam koleksi pribadi. Upaya yang pernah dilakukan baru sebatas inventarisasi naskah-naskah yang tersimpan di dalam koleksi Keraton (misalnya Keraton Surakarta dan Yogyakarta). Untuk itulah perlu dilakukan terobosan-terobosan baru dalam penelitian filologi terutama tentang penyelamatan (konservasi naskah). Mengingat peninggalan tertulis ini sudah terancam ”punah” karena bahan, iklim serta masyarakat yang berasal dari dua generasi berbeda tentu akan memiliki perbedaan pola berpikir.

2.1. Kodikologi

Kodikologi berasal dari kata Latin: codex (bentuk tunggal; bentuk jamak ialah codices) yang di dalam bahasa Indonesia diterjemahkan menjadi naskah, bukan menjadi kodeks (Sri Wulan Rujiati Mulyadi, 1994: 1). Dahulu, kata caudex atau codex dalam bahasa Latin menunjukkan bahwa ada hubungannya dengan pemanfaatan kayu sebagai alat tulis; pada dasarnya, kata itu berarti ’teras batang pohon’. Kata codex kemudian di dalam berbagai bahasa dipakai untuk menunjukkan suatu karya klasik dalam bentuk naskah (Diringer, 1982: 35—36).

Robson (1978: 26) menyebutkan bahwa kodikologi sebagai ’pelajaran naskah’, sementara Baried Baroroh (1985: 55) menyatakan bahwa kodikologi ialah ilmu kodeks. Kodeks adalah bahan tulisan tangan. Kodikologi mempelajari seluk-beluk semua aspek naskah, antara lain umur, tempat penulisan, dan perkiraan penulis naskah. Dengan demikian, penelitian kodikologi akan memperhatikan segala segi material naskah, yang meliputi huruf, alas atau bahan yang digunakan, iluminasi, ilustrasi, penyalinan, penyalin, tempat penyimpanan, dan sebagainya (Vermeeren dan Hellinga, 1961: 130—140).

Hermans dan Huisman (1980: 60) menjelaskan bahwa istilah kodikologi (codicologie) diusulkan oleh seorang ahli bahasa Yunani, Alphonse Dain, dalam kuliah-kuliahnya di Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, pada bulan Februari 1944. istilah ini baru terkenal pada tahun 1949, ketika karyanya, Les Manuscrits, diterbitkan untuk pertama kalinya pada tahun tersebut.

Selanjutnya ditegaskan pula oleh Dain (1975: 77) bahwa tugas dan ”daerah” kodikologi antara lain ialah sejarah naskah, sejarah koleksi naskah, penelitian mengenai tempat-tempat naskah yang sebenarnya, masalah penyusunan katalog, penyusunan daftar katalog, perdagangan naskah, dan penggunaan naskah-naskah itu.

Istilah lain yang dapat dipakai di samping istilah naskah ialah istilah manuskrip (bahasa Inggris manuscript diambil dari ungkapan Latin: codisesmanu scripti (artinya, buku-buku yang ditulis dengan tangan) (Madan, 1893: 1). Kata manu berasal dari manus yang berarti tangan dan scriptusx berasal dari scribere yang berarti menulis (Mamat, 1988: 3).

Dalam bahasa-bahasa lain terdapat kata-kata handschrift (Belanda), Handschrift (Jerman), dan manuscrit (Prancis). Dalam berbagai katalogus, kata manuscript dan manuscrit biasanya disingkat menjadi MS untuk bentuk tunggal dan MSS untuk bentuk jamak, sedangkan handschrift dan Handschrifen disingkat menjadi HS dan HSS.

Di dalam bahasa Malaysia, perkataan naskhah digunakan dengan meluas sebelum perkataan manuskrip (Mamat, 1988: 3). Di dalam bahasa Indonesia, kata naskah jauh lebih banyak dipakai daripada kata manuskrip untuk pengertian codex. Oleh karena kata naskah sudah pendek, sebaiknya kita jangan lagi menyingkat kata ini. Dengan demikian, kodikologi dapat diartikan sebagai ilmu tentang naskah atau ilmu pernaskahan (Sri Wulan Rujiati Mulyadi, 1994: 3).

Pendekatan kodikologi memang dimulai dengan menguraikan kondisi suatu naskah sesuai model yang terdapat dalam ”De Descriptione Codicum” (Hermans dan Huisman, 1979: 11—13). Akan tetapi penerapannya disesuaikan dengan kondisi fisik naskah yang ditemukan sehingga tidak semua rincian dipakai untuk menguraikan kondisi naskah. Penyederhanaan ini misalnya pada penjilidan.

Aspek yang dirinci dalam suatu naskah mencakup hal-hal sebagai berikut.

a. Identifikasi

Ini diawali dengan penjelasan tentang tempat naskah tersimpan, nomor naskah, bentuk naskah lengkap atau merupakan fragmen atau kumpulan. Catat pula judul, bahasa yang digunakan, tanggal yang tercantum dalam naskah. Kodikologi memang tidak membahas isi teks, tetapi hanya mencatat teks awal, tengah, dan akhir saja.

b. Bagian Buku

Naskah kuna pada umumnya menggunakan alas berupa kertas baik kertas Eropa maupun kertas Daluwang atau dluwang (Kertas Jawa). Walaupun demikian, ada pula naskah yang ditulis pada daun tal (daun lontar), kulit kayu, ataupun kulit hewan. Bagian ini membicarakan ciri dan keadaan kertas, penyusunan kuras, ukuran naskah serta halaman, dan cara penggarisan kertas.

c. Tulisan

Pokok ini menjelaskan jenis huruf yang digunakan, misalnya huruf Jawa atau huruf Arab atau huruf Pegon (Arab – Jawa). Penyalinan dilakukan oleh satu orang atau lebih, dan juga cara menulis rapi atau tidak. Selain itu, yang masih berkaitan dengan tulisan adalah rubrikasi, iluminasi, ilustrasi, dan gambar.

d. Penjilidan

Untuk naskah Jawa, teknik penjilidannya lebih sederhana bila dibandingkan dengan naskah Barat pada abad pertengahan. Sebagai contoh sampul naskah pada umumnya memakai karton atau kulit kayu. Pada siku sampul tidak diberi penguat, sampulnya tidak diberi hiasan. Punggung naskah tidak ada rusuk.

e. Sejarah

Dalam usaha menelusuri riwayat naskah, hal-hal yang dapat diteliti adalah kolofon, ciri kepemilikan, catatan-catatan dalam naskah, penggunaan naskah, cara memperoleh naskah, dan data-data luar. Untuk data luar, contohnya siapakan pemilik naskah (Maria Indra Rukmi, 1997: 3—5; Mu’jizah dan Maria Indra Rukmi, 1998: 3—4).

Perlu juga disampaikan bahwa penelitian kodikologi juga bertujuan untuk mengetahui sejarah kegiatan penulisan berbagai sastra Nusantara. Dengan mengetahui dan mempelajari berbagai skriptorium atau sanggar penulisan yang ditemukan, maka akan dapat diketahui aktivitas penulisan, ciri-ciri penulisan sanggar-sanggar tertentu, dan sumber kegiatan tersebut yang merupakan bagian dari sejarah kebudayaan suatu daerah.

Kelengkapan informasi ini akan sangat memungkinkan untuk mengidentifikasikan asal-usul sebuah naskah. Selain itu, diharapkan dapat meningkatkan pemahaman terhadap isinya karena diketahui kerangka latar belakang kejadiannya. Yang pada akhirnya, nilai-nilai universal yang terkandung di dalam naskah tersebut dapat dijadikan sumber inspirasi dalam pembangunan bangsa.

Russel Jones menekankan pentingnya segi eksternal naskah seperti kertas dan cap kertas untuk mengatasi masalah penanggalan dan klasifikasi naskah (1974). Masih berkaitan dengan masalah kertas Russel Jones menegaskan bahwa jarak waktu antara produksi kertas dan penggunaannya yang dapat dipakai untuk memperkirakan umur naskah. Ia berasumsi bahwa antara saat produksi kertas dan penggunaannya berkisar tiga hingga empat tahun (1988).

2.2. Digitalisasi Naskah

Digitalisasi merupakan sebuah upaya penyelamatan naskah-naskah kuno dengan memanfaatkan teknologi digital, seperti softfile, foto digital, microfilm atau microfiche serta mengupayakan baik naskah asli maupun naskah duplikatnya dapat bertahan dalam jangka waktu yang relatif lama (Sakamoto, 2003). Dengan demikian, digitalisasi merupakan bagian dari konservasi yang berupaya menyelamatkan naskah dari kemusnahan.

Ada berbagai faktor penyebab musnahnya naskah dari bumi Indonesia. Kemusnahan dan pemusnahan naskah tentulah berbeda artinya. Kemusnahan naskah atau hilangnya naskah disebabkan oleh hal-hal yang tidak disengaja, sedangkan pemusnahan naskah ialah akibat ulah manusia, baik disengaja maupun yang tidak sengaja.

Kemusnahan naskah di daerah tropis seperti Indonesia pada umumnya disebabkan karena kerusakan alas naskah – seperti kertas, lontar, dan nipah – karena tidak dapat bertahan terhadap iklim. Kemusnahan naskah ini dapat juga terjadi karena ulah serangga, berupa kutu yang mungkin saja membuat naskah demikian rusaknya, sehingga tidak dapat dipakai lagi karena tidak terbaca isinya (Sri Wulan Rujiati Mulyadi, 1994: 79).

Kelembaban udara mempercepat alas naskah rusak. Mengenai kerusakan atau kehancuran naskah, Ekadjati (1988: 11) menjelaskan bahwa hal itu disebabkan oleh musibah (terbakar, bencana, banjir, hilang, dan dimakan zaman atau dimakan serangga), ada pula akibat kesengajaan untuk dimusnahkan (dibakar, tidak dipelihara, dan lain-lain), dan ada yang karena kelalaian pemiliknya, seperti ditinggalkan mengungsi, terlupakan memeliharanya, dan lain-lain.

Secara eksplisit Sakamoto (2003) telah memetakan faktor-faktor penyebab kemusnahan naskah sebagai berikut.

Damage Factors

Catagory

Factor

Symptom

Mechanical

- Rough Handling

- Messy Storage

- Structural Weakness, Bad Binding

- Wrong Repair

- Breaks, Tears, Losses

- Distortion, Shrinkage, Folding

- Detachment of Cover of Spine

- Discolouration by Cellotapes

Environmental

- High Temperature

- High & Unstable Relative Humidity

- Light

- Air Polution

- Discolouration (Yellowing, Browning)

- Fading

- Felting, Mould stain

- Brittleness

Biological

- Microorganism

- Moulds

- Insect

- Animals

- Insect Holes

- Dirts (Stain, Discolouration, Urine)

- Faces

- Foxing

Chemical

- Acidity

- Oxidation

- Ink, Green Pigment

- Discolouration (Yellowing, Browning)

- Brittleness, Breaks

- Iron-Gall Ink Corrosion, Copper Corrosion

- Felting

- Rust

Accidental

- Fire

- Flood, Water

- Earthquake

- People (Robbery, War)

- Burn

- Sticking

- Dirts, Breaks

- Loss, & Disorder

Dalam perkembangannya, proses konservasi tidak hanya sekedar memperbaiki keadaan naskah yang rusak akibat berbagai faktor seperti tabel di atas. Tetapi, konservasi sudah mulai memanfaatkan kemajuan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi. Hal ini sejalan dengan upaya yang telah dilakukan oleh Uli Kozok (2003), peneliti dari Hawaii University. Secara tekun dan serius, beliau mengembangkan teknologi foto digital dalam rangka penyelamatan naskah dari kemusnahan. Bahkan, kini konservasi telah merambah teknologi multimedia. Konservasi foto digital dikombinasikan dengan teknologi cybermedia (Schoenberg, 2007). Saat ini peneliti naskah di Pennsylvania dapat mengakses objek penelitian mereka secara online melalui website http://scti.library.upenn.edu/ljs/

Melihat perkembangan yang demikian pesat, mestinya peneliti naskah di Indonesia sudah harus mulai melakukan hal serupa sehingga tidak tertinggal begitu jauh. Selain itu, upaya konservasi yang selama ini dilakukan secara tradisional dapat diubah menjadi lebih modern. Dengan demikian, konservasi dapat mengatasi kendala waktu. Karena selama ini upaya konservasi selalu berpacu dengan waktu yang berbanding lurus dengan tingat kerusakan dan kemusnahan naskah di setiap tempat penyimpanan naskah. Untuk itu, para peneliti naskah harus segera bertindak agar warisan intelektual nenek moyang yang tersimpan di dalam naskah tidak turut musnah dimakan serangga atau zaman.

Dengan demikian, kehadiran konservasi jenis ini dapat memberikan sumbangsih yang nyata bagi upaya penyelamatan naskah-naskah kuna. Tahap-tahapan konservasi dilakukan dengan melacak atau menginventarisir terlebih dahulu naskah-naskah kuna dalam berbagai koleksi baik koleksi lembaga atau instansi maupun koleksi pribadi, mendeskripsikan naskah sesuai dengan dengan model penelitian kodikologi (proses katalogisasi), dan pembuatan digitalisasi naskah. Digitalisasi naskah dilakukan melalui beberapa tahapan: pengambilan gambar / pemotretan, pengolahan gambar dengan software photopaint, pembuatan file PDF, dan pembuatan Web Design.

Namun sebelum proses digitalisasi dilakukan, deskripsi naskah berdasarkan model penelitian kodikologi harus sudah dilaksanakan. Artinya segala keterangan yang terkait dengan seluk-beluk naskah akan dideskripsikan. Perlu juga dikemukakan di sini bahwa ilmu kodikologi merupakan pengertian yang baru, di bidang ini mulai diperkenalkan oleh Alphonse Dain dalam kuliahnya di Paris pada Februari 1944. kemudian dengan kehadiran karya Les Manuscripts pada tahun 1949 kodikologi mulai diperkenalkan kepada masyarakat. Ini berarti bahwa data tentang kodikologi dalam naskah-naskah kuna yang ditemukan, sebelum dibuat web design-nya akan disistematiskan terlebih dahulu sehingga menghasilkan sebuah pemahaman yang baik dan lengkap. Dengan demikian, hasil deskripsi naskah yang baik dan benar inilah yang nantinya akan dijadikan bahan bagi pembuatan katalogisasi dan digitalisasi yang dapat dipertanggungjawabkan secara ilmiah.

2.3. Cybermedia

Meneliti—kemudian menuliskan dan mempublikasikannya secara online—dapat menjadi “alat pemasaran” yang mempunyai nilai jual lebih bagi wisatawan dengan minat khusus. Selain itu, e-book memiliki karakter yang unik. Produk ini dapat dikirim dan di-download secara elektronik atau digital, sehingga memangkas biaya distribusi. Dengan memanfaatkan e-book melalui teknologi cybermedia diharapkan akan menjadi income tersendiri bagi pihak pengelola museum atau perpustakaan yang selama ini mengeluh tentang kurangnya aliran dana bagi perawatan koleksi dan pengembangan institusi (Onggo, 2007: 3).

Onggo (2007: 3—5) menegaskan bahwa keuntungan mempublikasikan e-book adalah sebagai berikut.

a. Fleksibilitas dan mudah

E-book memberikan kemudahan bagi siapa pun untuk dapat memiliki perpustakaan berjalan dan dapat dibawa ke mana saja, entah disimpan dalam flashdisk, laptop, atau PDA. Bisa juga ditaruh secara online. Kapan saja dibutuhkan, dapat segera diaksesnya melalui internet.

b. Fungsi

Fungsi e-book bergantung pada program-program pembuatnya dan jenis dokumen elektronik yang dibuat. Dengan program-program tersebut, dapat dicari, dilengkapi dengan keterangan dan mencetaknya.

c. Harga

Memasarkan e-book secara massal, umumnya menjadikan harganya lebih murah dibandingkan dalam versi cetak, apalagi bila dihitung juga biaya pengirimannya.

d. Ruang

Dengan e-book, perpustakaan akan memiliki lebih banyak kapasitas ruang di dalam hard disk komputer, karena seluruh ensiklopedia dapat disimpan, misalnya hanya dalam satu atau dua keping CD/DVD saja. Lebih jauh lagi, perpustakaan elektronik ini dapat menghemat ruang penyimpanan file, uang, dan waktu.

e. Ketersediaan

Naskah yang tingkat kerusakannya cukup parah tidak diperkenankan keluar dari tempatnya penyimpanan. Oleh karena itu, perlu dibuat dalam format e-book sehingga dapat menyediakan naskah bagi para peneliti dengan cepat dan efisien dalam segi biaya.

f. Mudah mempublikasikan

Mempublikasikan e-book akan sangat efisien dan hemat bagi pihak perpustakaan.

g. Konservasi

Melalui e-book, berarti upaya konservasi terhadap naskah kuna dapat dilakukan secara hemat, efektif, dan efisien. Selain itu, secara tidak langsung juga telah membantu melestarikan alam, pohon-pohon, dan juga mengurangi polusi akibat proses manufaktur pembuat kertas.

3. Kesimpulan

Berdasarkan uraian sebelumnya dapat disimpulkan sebagai berikut.

a. Digitalisasi merupakan bagian dari konservasi yang berupaya menyelamatkan naskah-naskah kuna dari kemusnahan.dengan memanfaatkan teknologi digital, seperti softfile, foto digital, microfilm atau microfiche serta mengupayakan baik naskah asli maupun naskah duplikatnya dapat bertahan dalam jangka waktu yang relatif lama. Dengan demikian, digitalisasi dapat mengatasi kendala “waktu”. Karena selama ini upaya konservasi selalu dihadapkan pada permasalahan waktu yang berbanding lurus dengan tingat kerusakan dan kemusnahan naskah di setiap tempat penyimpanan naskah.

b. Sebelum proses digitalisasi berjalan, ada beberapa hal yang harus sudah dilakukan yaitu melakukan inventarisasi naskah-naskah kuna dalam berbagai koleksi baik koleksi lembaga atau instansi maupun koleksi pribadi, mendeskripsikan naskah sesuai dengan dengan model penelitian kodikologi (proses katalogisasi). Dengan demikian, hasil deskripsi naskah yang baik dan benar inilah yang nantinya akan dijadikan bahan bagi pembuatan digitalisasi yang dapat dipertanggungjawabkan secara ilmiah.

c. Digitalisasi naskah dilakukan melalui beberapa tahapan: pengambilan gambar / pemotretan, pengolahan gambar dengan software photopaint, pembuatan file PDF, dan pembuatan Web Design.


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*) Artikel ini dimuat dalam Jurnal Nuansa Indonesia

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